Mono or infectious mononucleosis is referred to a collection of symptoms which affect some people, and it occurs mostly after having Epstein-Barr virus infection. Mono is also known as glandular fever.
As stated by the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) that a lot of people get infected with the Epstein-Barr virus at a point in time in their lives. A lot of them don’t develop the mono symptoms, but they turn into carriers.
The symptoms of mono do vary between the age groups. In children that are still young, any of the symptoms of mono in them would be mild. In young adults and teenagers, the symptoms of mono can get more serious.
The consequences of having mono are hardly serious
the classic mono symptoms are:
- Fatigue or extreme tiredness
- High fever
- Muscle weakness and body aches
- Having glands that get swollen in the underarms or neck
- Having enlarged spleen
Nevertheless, these symptoms of mono widely vary between the different age groups and viral shedding can hold for an average of 6 months.
The teens and young adults
People who are between the age of 15 years to 24 years are very likely to grow the classic type of symptoms of mono. They mostly get severe symptoms.
The symptoms of mono do last often for like two weeks to 4 weeks, and also they can preserve for a while. Sore throat, fever, and some other common symptoms can last for longer days and get better gradually.
However, the duration of the tiredness can stay for more weeks or months after every other symptom might have gone.
Why the symptoms of mono have effects more on teens, and young adults remain unclear.
If it is kissing that is a factor of having mono spread, it might be the higher up the levels of exchange of saliva the severe the symptoms will be.
Another theory that said is that children that are younger build up immunity gradually to the mono virus if they get exposed from minor age as it often happens in countries that are developing.
In well-developed countries, a person isn’t that likely to get exposed to this virus during the early stages and young childhood. A youthful person that hasn’t been exposed to this virus before may be susceptible more because their immune system can’t be able to have the attack repelled.
The young children
Children most often don’t have the classic symptoms, or they can have mild ones which are mostly confused with flu or a common cold.
How they do have the virus is unclear. A possibility is maybe the parents are carriers, and the virus got passed down to their babies when it got reactivated and shed. The virus amount that got passed from the past infection of a parent might be low, which can cause milder and fewer symptoms in the child.
When a child has these mild symptoms of mono, parents do think it’s a flu or cold most especially if the significant symptoms is sore throat and fever.
The older adults
A study that got published inside Age and Ageing says that in adults that are above 40 years, the symptoms of mono are not common. They might not have the experience of the classic mono symptoms of swollen glands and red throat.
Instead, they might have a problem with their livers. Liver inflammation with fever can allow mono not to get spotted in this their age. Muscle aches might be common also in this age group.
When do you have to consult a doctor
A lot of sicknesses do cause a sore throat and fever, most especially flu, colds, and some common viruses.
Mono can be confused easily with other types of sickness, so people should consult a doctor when they notice worrisome or unknown symptoms.
Parents have been advised by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to make contact with a doctor if their child:
- Is extremely drowsy or fussy
- Has gotten severe sore throat or headache
- Has rash developed without any cause
- If the temperature is 140 degrees Fahrenheit or its above
- Having a seizure
Those that have ruptured spleen symptoms should immediately seek emergency care.
A doctor can quickly diagnose a younger or a young adult having classic symptoms of mono through physical examination.
However, the symptoms might not be that obvious in children that are young and adults, so going through additional testing might be required. A blood test can identify if a person has a past or recent infection with the virus.
Antibiotics can’t treat mono because it’s a virus. Having the symptoms is recommended by doctors through:
- By taking fever reducers and pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen which you can buy online
- Making use of salt water mouthwashes for your sore throat
- Until all the symptoms have gone there shouldn’t no sports
Glandular fever also known as Infectious mononucleosis can come up from EBV infection result or herpes of virus 4
Mono is the infection symptoms, and the common cause is EBV.
A lot of people has EBV, but they don’t experience the symptoms of mono, or the mono symptoms are so mild, and they look like the symptoms of other common illness like flu or cold.
Adolescents and young adults are likely to have their symptoms more noticeable, and it’s also prevalent among the students in college.
Even in someone that has no symptoms, it can still be reactivated or become active later. When it gets active, the symptoms might not show, and the virus can get passed to another person. This person might have symptoms of mono developed.
If a person has experienced the symptoms of mono before, they are not likely to develop them again.
While the mono most common cause is EBV, some other infections can cause the symptoms of mono, which includes:
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- German measles or rubella
- Hepatitis A, B, or C
Mono is referred to as the “kissing disease” often, but it isn’t spread only by kissing. Having drinks shared, food in a plate, toothbrushes can get it to spread. It can also get passed on via breast milk or any bodily floods like semen or blood, or through a blood transfusion.
Usually, the consequences aren’t that serious, but it can be devastating while the symptoms last and it might take very long to get recovered most, especially recovering from the tiredness.
The risk factors
The virus (EBV), which rises to mono, is spread most often through saliva.
A lot of people has the virus during their childhood and won’t notice any of the symptoms. Once the infection has gotten into the body, it will be there forever, and it can be reactivated occasionally later.
The virus that gets reactivated can get spread to other people through saliva. In other words, someone can get mono from someone that has or shows any signs of the illness.
The risk can get increased through the following:
- Sexual contact
- Having drinks, having toothbrushes shared or anything that goes through the saliva and mouth
- Blood transfusion
- Having a transplanted organ received
People that have their immune system compromised have a higher risk of:
- Having symptoms developed on their first contact to EBV
- Having the virus reactivated and causing a bout of mono for a second time
The mono virus is most common between people from age 15 years to 35 years. A lot of people won’t have it for a 2nd time.
The period of incubation is four weeks to 8 weeks for mono. During this time, from the infection time until the symptoms appear, such a person is infectious. They would look healthy, but the mono can get spread to others.
When the symptoms of the mono appear, they might be severe for some days and get milder gradually. In 2 weeks to 4 weeks, the person would recover, but the tiredness can last for a while.
Serious complications are rare, but 0.5% of people that are infected do have a ruptured spleen, and it can get fatal.
The ruptured spleen symptoms include:
- Having pains in your uppermost left abdomen
- Having pains on your left shoulder which feels terrible when you are breathing in
- Having pain in your chest at the remaining area
- Having your blood pressure dropping, which can lead to fainting, dizziness, paleness, or confusion.
Having a blow near where the spleen is might result in having a swollen spleen to get ruptured. Because of this reason, sportspersons should not go into sports for three weeks to 4 weeks after getting the virus.
If the virus leads to liver problems, then jaundice might occur. The skin and the white in the eyes would look yellow. In most of the cases, the inflammation of the liver will get improved by itself when the infection gets cleared out of the body.
In rare cases, mono can cause also:
- Blood problems like anemia or low count of platelet
- Heart muscle inflammation
- Spinal cord membranes and brain inflammation called meningitis
- Brain inflammation or encephalitis
- Guillain-Barre syndrome
- Swollen tonsils leading to breathing problems
It’s rare to see these problems. They occur more in people that have an immune system that is weakened due to AIDS or HIV, some cancer treatment types, or have has an organ transplant.
There isn’t a way that is proven to have mono prevented, but these simple tips can assist in avoiding it:
- Washing your hands after you have made use of the bathroom and before you eat
- Sneezing or coughing into a tissue or sleeve and having your hands washed afterward
- Not coming close to people that have the symptoms of mono until they have recovered
- For people that have the symptoms of mono; not going to school or work
- Not having objects that come into contact with mouth shared
The mono symptoms can hinder with life for some days or even weeks, but a lot of people do recover without problems. Having your symptoms managed with rest and self-care is the best way often to have mono dealt.